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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 105-109

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among dyspeptic patients in a tertiary care centre in South Kerala, India


1 Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Venjaramoodu, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
3 Department of Microbiology, Sree Gokulam Medical College, Venjaramoodu, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Jyothi Rajahamsan
Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Venjaramoodu, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-1282.194937

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Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP) is the most common bacterial infection in humans. It affects > 50% of world population and remains the major aetiological agent of ailments of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans. HP eradication prevents pre-neoplastic changes of gastric mucosa and regression of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid type lymphoma. For these reasons and many others, it is worthwhile testing patients with dyspepsia for HP, who might benefit from eradication therapy. Objective : To study the prevalence of HP infection among dyspeptic patients in a tertiary care centre in South Kerala. Materials and Methods: Gastric biopsy specimens were collected from referred patients with dyspepsia from Southern districts of Kerala (Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam and Pathanamthitta) attending the Gastroenterology Outpatient Department, who underwent upper GI endoscopy, during a one-year period from December 2009 to November 2010. The serum samples were collected for doing HP IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The biopsy specimens were used for doing rapid urease test (RUT) and culture was done in patients showing urease positivity and/or high level of IgG antibody titre. Results: The study was conducted on 250 consecutive dyspeptic patients, with an age range of 7-73 years. Significant IgG titres (>37.5 IU/ml) were detected in 89 cases (35.6%), while the RUT was positive in 30 cases (12%). Subjects were considered positive for HP infection by combined IgG antibody and/or urease test positivity and negative when both the tests were negative. In this study, ninety patients (36%) were positive for HP infection, and 160 (64%) were negative. Culture was done in patients showing urease positivity and/or high level of IgG antibody titre and proportion of culture positivity among this group was 34%. Conclusion: Seroprevalence of HP infection in South Kerala was found to be low (35.6%). Low infection rates were seen in children, similar to that in developed countries, and it is likely that the prevalence of HP may fall in the coming years. Due to the lower percentage of HP infection in this area, a test and treat policy is applicable as in many developed countries.


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